Stylistic Origins |  Gothic and Renaissance Furniture

M. Markley Antiques is recognized as the foremost authority in the U.S. on French Gothic Revival and Renaissance Revival furniture.  This has allowed us to offer the widest array of pieces to buyers who prize these styles and to procure the most interesting and unique items as they become available in Europe.  Because enthusiasm in the U.S. for these styles has outpaced the publication of scholarly materials,* we have dedicated our website to expanding and enhancing the resources available in English on the 19th century revival in France of Gothic and Renaissance design.  In this endeavor, we express our gratitude for their inspiration and guidance to two people connected to Meril Markley's alma mater, Vassar College, where her love of Gothic Revival style was born:  Professor Emeritus of Art History, Eugene Carroll (who passed away in 2016); and Christopher Wilk, Keeper of Furniture, Textiles and Fashion at the Victoria & Albert Museum in London.  After the discussion on stylistic origins there is information on how to care for your antique furnitire.  For more information on the reference materials we use in preparing this page and descriptions of our offerings, see the Bibliography section, below.

Eugene Carroll, Meril Markley, Michael Markley

The Markleys with Eugene Carroll at Brasserie 292 in Poughkeepsie


Christopher Wilk, Meril Markley, Michael Markley

The Markleys with Christopher Wilk at Racine Restaurant in London


Rosso Fiorentino by Eugene Carroll

Eugene Carroll's Book to Accompany the Exhibition at the National Gallery in Washington, DC (1987)


Western Furniture by Christopher Wilk

Christopher Wilk's Book on the History of Furniture (1996)

Much has already been published about the Gothic Revival in England – a movement encompassing the late 18th century and much of the 19th century.  Not only did it include architecture and furniture, but also literature, painting and poetry.  To its adherents, it was superior to all other styles, not only artistically but morally.  It embodied what it meant to be English, although contemporary critics noted that Gothic architecture originated in France and was exported to England at a time when the country’s Plantagenet rulers spoke French.  Nevertheless, the Gothic Revival was firmly entrenched within the broader Romantic Movement as part of a yearning for distant historical times of myth and legend while promoting personal emotional expression over encroaching industrialization.  Neo-Classicism, with its emphasis on the rational and on the remote pagan civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome was swept aside by a rising tide of interest in individualism, nationalism, Christian religious fervor and love of nature.

As with other design movements, the 19th century revival of interest in the Middle Ages was shaped by political, social and economic events.  The French Revolution caused huge disruptions in the hereditary aristocracy along with dispersal and destruction of family fortunes, including furniture.  The subsequent years of Napoleon’s conquests in Europe wrought havoc on furniture and its owners across the continent.  With Wellington’s victory came waves of British would-be collectors,  like locusts devouring a crop of wheat, buying furniture at fire-sale prices and even chartering their own ships to haul it home from the Continent.  This harvest of chattels involved the destruction of buildings, especially Gothic churches, where architectural elements were considered fair game for enthusiasts wishing to add a Gothic flavor to existing buildings or to include a ruin in their garden.

While such wholesale transfers of wealth from one country to another are rare, in the case of French furniture in England, it can be argued that preservation and admiration were fortunate byproducts.  As Clive Wainwright demonstrates in his fascinating book, The Romantic Interior, collecting was no longer limited to the nobility but trickled down to the merchant class and the upwardly mobile.  Such literary luminaries as Sir Walter Scott and Horace Walpole adored the Gothic style and collected passionately to create the romance of the Middle Ages in their homes without sacrificing modern conveniences for the primitive standard of living and technology in medieval times.  Collectors became patrons and protectors, studiously cataloguing their collections and opening their homes to visitors.

The Romantic Interior by Clive Wainwright

Book by Clive Wainwright (Victoria & Albert Museum)


Jacqueline Boccador

Jacqueline Boccardor's Book in French


During the early 19th century, France too was swamped by waves of enthusiasm for earlier styles.  These went by various names, including those attributed to Kings Henri II (reigned 1547-1559) and Louis XIII (reigned 1610-1643), but also items made in the 16th and 17th centuries and referred to collectively as haute époque (Middle Ages and Renaissance).  As in England, the Gothic Revival in France was closely associated with literature, especially the works of the devoted furniture collector Victor Hugo, but without adopting a moral stance.  It enjoyed the indulgence of royalty as the Duchesse de Berry embraced and encouraged what was called the Troubadour Style or Cathedral Style of Gothic Revival on exhibit at French industrial and trade fairs in the early 19th century.  The shift in tastes from Empire, with its elaborate polishing and ormolu, to Gothic Revival with its more massive and architectural look, also reflects the importance of individual collectors and the expansion of the ranks of the bourgeoisie seeking to validate nascent wealth with timeless furniture.

As political stability returned intermittently to France, the Gothic Revival became enmeshed with a movement by leading intellectuals and artists to conserve the country’s artistic heritage.  In 1830, a government department was established to preserve and protect national treasures including the medieval city of Carcassonne and to restore buildings such as Notre Dame de Paris under the supervision of Eugène Viollet-le-Duc.  Even the King of France, Louis Philippe (reigned 1830-1848), indulged his passion for earlier times.  He embraced 19th century industrial techniques to popularize the revival of furniture in the Gothic and Renaissance styles, particularly in connection with the renovation of his residence, the Château de Pau in southwestern France.

The key stylistic elements of the Gothic Period are the pointed arch, the linen-fold panel (pli de serviette or pli de parchemin), spires and columns (including fluted and twisted), tracery resembling windows in cathedrals (fenestrage), vegetation (vines, grapes, sunflowers, etc.) and fantastic animal and human figures (especially hunt motifs and mythical beasts such as griffins and basilisks).  Combined in virtuosic exuberance, they are pleasing to the eye and captivating to the mind as they invite contemplation and celebration of each detail as well as the overall effect.

fenestrage or tracery

Fenestrage on Cabinet 4190



Basilisk on Cabinet 5216


The French revival of Gothic style, as interpreted in furniture, is clearly distinguishable from the English.  At the risk of generalizing, English Gothic furniture has a more delicate and refined look and finish.  It is a re-interpretation of earlier styles to suit 19th century tastes and lifestyles rather than a faithful recreation of old pieces of furniture.  French Gothic furniture, on the other hand, appears more massive and solid, faithfully replicating the pieces from the haute époque on view in many French museums and collections in the 19th century.  For Gothic pieces incorporating tracery or fenestrage, the material of choice was oak as it was for medieval artisans.  Renaissance and Louis XIII style pieces from the 19th century tend to be of walnut, whose fine grain permitted highly intricate carving such as that created by 15th and 16th century craftsmen.  An emphasis of architectural elements including arches, columns, pediments and trestles characterized the 19th century revival with an emphasis on construction from solid wood, in contrast to 18th century construction techniques involving inlays, marquetry and veneers.

Particularly toward the end of the Middle Ages and as Renaissance design moved northward from Italy, the furniture is characterized by the elaborate detail and exquisite ornamentation found in the paintings of that time period.  A shift in overall style from Gothic arches and tracery to Renaissance elements took hold, traceable to the re-discovery of Roman designs from antiquity, including “grotesque decoration” inspired by "grottoes" comprising the ruins of Nero’s Domus Aurea.

Spurring a complete re-invention of art in France in the 16th century was King François I (reigned 1515-1547) and his passion for all things Italian.  The king invited the Florentine artist, Rosso Fiorentino, to the hunting lodge of Fontainebleau to expand and renovate it.  Rosso's masterpiece was the Galérie François I, including frescoes glorifying the king’s magnificence and framed by stuccos introducing design elements such as strap-work, garlands of vegetation, and mythological figures.

Fontainebleau - Galerie François I

Galérie François I


Venus Fresco by Rosso Fiorentino

Venus Fresco by Rosso Fiorentino


Rosso Fiorentino

Image of  Rosso Fiorentino from the Elephant Fresco


Fontainebleau - Le Roi et L'Artiste

Book from  Exhibition at Château de Fontainebleau (2013)


In fact, the king treasured this room so much that he founded a tapestry workshop at Fontainebleau to craft six tapestries based on Rosso’s work, so they could remind him of the Galérie and accompany him on extended visits to his other residences.  These are on display at the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna.

Rosso was central to the adoption of  Italian Renaissance style in France, not just in the frescos and stuccos in the Galérie François I but also from books of engravings made from his designs, influencing furniture makers for generations to come.  It is these works that 19th century designers copied faithfully and, at times, sought to pass off as 16th century originals.  Thanks to Eugene Carroll, Professor Emeritus of Art History at Vassar College and developer of a website dedicated to Rosso Fiorentino, our research into the development of furniture design in France has been greatly and fruitfully expanded.

The key stylistic elements of the Renaissance are the rounded arch and other architectural elements, rectilinear designs mimicking perspective in painting, elaborate and broad mouldings, contrasting types of wood or marble inlays, emblematic animals such as lions, salamanders and porcupines, Roman armorial symbols, mythological figures portrayed in caryatids and terms, historical figures and biblical scenes portrayed on panels, and the acanthus leaf.  An emphasis on symmetry and overall balance also characterize furniture of this period along with a sense of the individual owner whose taste it mirrors.  The grotesques and mythological allusions may also reflect the influence of the ceramics or faïence known as Urbinoware whose brightly colored examples swept into France from Italy to be adopted and further developed by ceramic manufacturers such as Gien and Blois in the 19th century.

Renaissance armorial design

Armorial Ornamentation on Table 9218


Salamander - Renaissance Chest

Salamander Emblem on Chest 5154


Renaissance Furniture - Term

Term on Chest 5154


Lion Mask on Renaissance Cabinet

Figure with Lion Mask on Cabinet 5183A


Dolphin and Putto Decoration

Grotesque Ornamentation on Cabinet 4157


Grotesque design - Renaissance Furniture

Grotesque Masque on Chair 5212


From the "grottoes" of ancient Rome came the "grotesque" decoration incorporated by Raphael into his designs for the Papal Apartments and the Villa Farnesina in Rome, by Pinturicchio in the frescoes of the Baglioni Chapel at Santa Maria Maggiore in Spello, and by Rosso Fiorentino in the Galerie François I at Fontainebleau.  The Renaissance version of grotesque decoration is complex and seems to fill every inch of space.  19th century French cabinetmakers replicated it faithfully.

raphael grotesque decoration at villa farnesina

Raphael's grotesque decoration at Villa Farnesina


central panel from top of chest 3213

Central panel from top of Chest 3213


In contrast, the imperial Roman originals allowed much more open area around specific details such as the tendrils of vines.

domus aurea grotesque decoration

Inside Nero's Domus Aurea courtesy of Christoph von Teichman


via appia grotesque decoration

Ceiling decoration inside a tomb on the Via Appia


Breakfast rooms in European hotels appear to remain a popular location for appreciating grotesque decoration while sipping one's morning coffee.  In the case of the Decumani Hotel de Charme, where we stayed during a business trip to Naples, the decor dates back to the 17th century when the palazzo was the residence of an archbishop.  Of more recent construction is the Dom Pedro Palace Hotel in Lisbon, site of a tax conference.  Regrettably, the staff could offer no explanation about the origin of the enchanting grotesque decoration in the breakfast room and throughout this magnificent hotel.

decumani hotel de charm napoli

17th Century grotesque decoration in Naples


Dom Pedro Palace Hotel Lisbon

A modern take on the grotesque in Lisbon


We are still surrounded today by these same decorative motifs as witnessed during a recent bicycle ride through the Market Street shopping area in The Woodlands, TX.

grotto restaurant woodlands, tx

The Grotto Restaurant in The Woodlands, TX


vase outside HEB Woodlands Market

Large vase with grotesque outside HEB Woodlands Market


Not all design motifs of the Renaissance have proved as easily traceable in their origins.  One of the most perplexing aspects of Renaissance design in France was the use of what appear to be motifs from the native cultures of Central and South America including figures with elaborate feather headdresses, earrings and costumes.  These were especially popular in the hand-carved decoration of cabinets and armoires from the 16th century.  The mystery was solved when we read in the New York Times of an exhibit at the Grand Palais in Paris in the spring of 2005 of artifacts of Brazilian Indians.  Alan Riding detailed in the article how the French were captivated by 50 Indians brought to France in 1550 and housed in a reconstructed Indian village in Normandy for the entertainment of royalty.  From this exposure to New World culture, it is no surprise that French designers, always alert to what is new and stylish, would choose to include these motifs in their furniture.

Brazil Indian Headdress - Renaissance Furniture

Detail of  Armoire 24 from the Sale at Auction of the Collection of Bruno Perrier (April 6, 1992)

During the revivals of Gothic and Renaissance styles, views about what was an antique were fluid.  The passion for furniture in the  style of earlier periods led to “marriages” of old elements with new.  If a suitable ancient piece could not be found, collectors were not averse to designing or commissioning new pieces in the old style and incorporating them into rooms which were a mixture of old and new, albeit united by the Gothic theme.

In reviving the styles of earlier times, French furniture designers did not adhere slavishly to the forms or styles of the distant past but designed furniture in forms that did exist previously, such as the occasional table, the armchair and various display pieces such as the sellette or column.  But the desire to create one-of-a-kind pieces of commanding proportions infused the designs of 19th century craftsmen of cabinets and armoires just as it had their haute époque forbears.

When seeking to recreate the past, some mistaken assumptions were made and persist to this day.  Both English and French furniture makers and antiques dealers in the 19th century believed that pieces dating from the Middle Ages and Renaissance were dark, whether arising from centuries of paste wax mixed with smoke, or just from fashion preferences and use of stains.  As scholars now know, furniture made in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance was not stained and the natural beauty of the wood was admired.  Nevertheless, 19th century dealers and collectors persisted in their desire for darkly colored furniture and interiors evoking the darkness and mystery of earlier times while convinced that such interiors should protect them from intrusions of light and the outside world.

Enthusiasm for Gothic and Renaissance style furniture persisted beyond the end of the 19th century thanks to access to collections from the original periods in museums as well as popular publications in color, such as Racinet’s L’Ornement Polychrome, from which designers and manufacturers could derive elements to include in their products.  Enthusiasm not only for Gothic design but also for Renaissance elements such as rounded arches, columns, vegetation and masques led to a delightful mélange, commonly referred to as Henri II style, popular in France by the close of the 19th century and up to World War I.

The Château des Bois CollectionTM evokes the spirit of Europe’s master designers and cabinetmakers whose scrupulous attention to detail and use of the finest materials speak to us across the centuries as we welcome these pieces into today’s homes and businesses.  Despite wars, pestilence and other attacks on the furniture and the people who owned it, those examples that survive are an ongoing tribute to their makers’ genius.

What follows are the stylistic origins of various categories of furniture.


We adore chests or coffres because they were and remain the most versatile and adaptable furniture ever invented.  A true "multi-tasker" for medieval times, a chest functioned as bed (for children or very small adults), table, or seat while securing all manner of worldly goods under lock and key.  Not only was it the main item of furniture in early French households, it was not uncommon to have a chest in every room. 

Tracing a chest's DNA to its ultimate ancestor shows that it began life in Roman times as a container for a soldier's weapons, often hewn from an entire tree trunk with a portion cut open and hinged to form the top (hence, chests also referred to as 'trunks').  Later Roman chests derived their style from the burial sarcophagus made of marble and heavily carved.  Through the Dark Ages, the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance, the chest continued to have a security function -- housing the owner's valuables in a relatively portable form but strong enough to deter thieves.  The French nobility led a semi-nomadic life traveling from one castle or home to another and taking their furniture with them.  The portability and versatility of chests came in handy for transporting textiles and other valuables as well as serving as seats, tables and other functions on arrival at each location.

So many categories of furniture owe their development, during the Middle Ages, to the chest.  For example, the armoire began as a chest standing on its end so the lid could swing to the side as a door.  That staple of French dining rooms, the bahut-deux-corps, began life as two chests stacked on top of one another with their lids opening to the front.  The dressoir cabinet evolved from a chest placed on a small table or platform.  The bench is a chest with a back and arms added, while retaining the convenience of a storage area below the seat.  Throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance, chests were used to store prized culinary commodities such as salt and spices, keeping them not only safe from thieves but protected from vermin.  In a smaller form, the coffret, the chest became a jewelry box or small yet secure container for housing highly portable valuables.  The coffret took on its own decorative vocabulary associated with the style and wealth of its owner.

During the Gothic period in northern France, chests enjoyed their glory days -- borrowing from cathedrals such architectural elements as intricately carved arches and tracery (fenestrage) to become architectural masterpieces in their own right.  Many of these pieces survive as faithful copies by 19th century craftsmen seeking to evoke the grandeur and elegance of earlier times.

In the Renaissance, the styles developed and perfected in Italy swept into Paris and the Loire Valley with  Catherine de' Medici's entourage of craftsmen brought to the court of her husband, the future King Henri II of France.  This decorative vocabulary, including vegetation and mythological figures, quickly supplanted the last remnants of Gothic style among the furniture makers of Northern France.

The coffre de mariage or wedding chest was also a popular form used by the bride to accumulate the linens to be used in marriage - not unlike the American concept of a "hope chest."  Regional versions of the wedding chest were particularly popular in Brittany, often including likenesses of the bride and groom in carved panels on the front of the chest.

This versatility as well as a chest's portability helped ensure its popularity in the 19th century when French craftsmen sought to recapture the romance and chivalry of an earlier era - characteristics embodied in the chest as a cherished furnishing for the ages.

Click to view our Chests page.


Our Château des Bois CollectionTM of French antique furniture contains armoires dating from the 18th to the 20th centuries in Renaissance, Henri II, Louis XIII and Louis XIV styles in solid oak or walnut.  The collection includes a pair of matching bibliothèques or library cabinets with glass doors as well as a monumental Louis XIV armoire made in Provence in the 18th century.  Like their medieval ancestors, these armoires are wonderfully versatile and command attention in whatever room they inhabit.

For centuries, armoires have commanded pride of place in French homes, treasured for their imposing presence and their ample storage capacity.  Like most categories of furniture, the armoire traces its ancestry to the chest, from a time as far back as the Dark Ages when some clever French person turned a chest on its end and shoved it against a wall so that the lid would swing open as a door.  The modern term "armoire" comes from the Latin word "armorium," or the chest that was used by Roman soldiers to store arms. From a cultural standpoint, this conversion from chest to armoire signals the beginning of a less nomadic and more prosperous lifestyle in which people no longer limited their furniture choices to whatever they could carry on their backs or their horses.

With war, pestilence, floods and crime as the common denominators of European existence for centuries, the armoire played a pivotal role in storing and protecting the possessions of its owner.  In this context, it is important to remember that until the 19th century industrialization of the textile business, items such as rugs, tapestries, curtains, clothing, tablecloths, and bedding were extremely expensive and comprised the most valuable possessions of a household.  Therefore a richly carved and massive armoire was a fitting repository to preserve and protect these trappings of wealth.

During Gothic and Renaissance times, the armoire was less popular than its cousin, also descended from the chest, the bahut-deux-corps or two-piece cabinet.  Beginning with the reign of King Louis XIII in the 17th century,  armoires reasserted their dominance as the premier category of furniture with bold designs featuring raised diamond patterns, Maltese crosses and other geometric shapes.  Louis XIV's reign saw the development of the largest armoires in walnut, having massive architectural mouldings at top and bottom.  Because of their solid and sturdy construction, many of these survive to this day, particularly in Southern France.

Most of our armoires date from the 19th century when France was swept by a passion for the revival of past styles such as Gothic, Renaissance (Henri II), Louis XIII and Louis XIV, leading  to re-interpretations of the armoire for contemporary use.  This gave rise to ingenious methods of construction so that armoires could be taken apart and re-assembled in rooms whose small doorways would not otherwise admit these giants.   Craftsmen employed stylistic elements characteristic of the earlier periods such as columns, mythological creatures, and intricately carved vegetation.  It was also the time when the bibliothèque or armoire with glass doors became popular for housing books in libraries and offices.

On a recent visit to France, a young woman told us of the huge Louis XIV era armoire in the living room of her family's fifth floor apartment in central Paris and how it was a treasured member of the family.  We asked if it was a problem moving it and she responded that she did not know - it had been in the same place for over 200 years!  Such is the reverence and affection reserved for armoires in France that, although they are rare, we are able to find them so beautifully preserved.

In the U.S., the armoire has enjoyed a Renaissance of its own, including conversion into an "entertainment center" or the home for a wide-screen television.  This has led to a scarcity of the larger pieces of particularly solid construction with ample interior space.

Click to view our Armoires.


Our Château des Bois CollectionTM is rich and varied when it comes to cabinets - from small confituriers to massive, two-piece buffets dating from the 18th to the 20th centuries in styles including Gothic, Renaissance (Henri II), Louis XIII, and Louis XIV, crafted from solid walnut or oak.  We were especially fortunate to acquire the entire collection of a retired French physician and devoté of French Gothic Revival furnishings who collected 19th century interpretations of Medieval cabinets featuring Gothic tracery and intricate statuettes.

Like the armoire, the cabinet  traces its ancestry to the chest, which when turned onto its front or back panel and hoisted onto a platform became a cabinet with a lid which became a door.  Two chests mounted on top of one another in this manner formed the original bahut-deux-corps or two-piece cabinet.

The stylistic evolution of cabinets is a rich one, especially in the Middle Ages and Renaissance whose 19th century revival figures so large in the Château des Bois CollectionTM.  During the Middle Ages, cabinets served not only a storage function but also display.  They grew ever larger in size as their owners sought more surfaces upon which to display silver, ceramics and other material indicators of their wealth and status.  The need for horizontal display surfaces is directly responsible for the dressoir, a style of cabinet popularized in the Middle Ages and used throughout the Renaissance.  The dressoir is a cabinet with a central case at eye level, usually having a door on either side of a central panel.  Below the case is an open area with a pot board, a few inches above the floor, to display large items such as platters and vases.  Examples of dressoirs can be found in numerous paintings and illuminated manuscripts from the Middle Ages and Renaissance, including works by Rogier van der Weyden and other Flemish masters.

In addition to a surprising number of  dressoirs surviving from the Middle Ages and now in the hands of museums or private collectors, the 19th century revival of interest in Gothic furniture led to the creation of contemporary pieces which were faithful renderings of ancient models.  Particularly striking are those employing tracery or fenestrage, to give the impression of Gothic architectural elements, and plis-de-serviette or plis-de-parchemin, the distinctive panels depicting a folded cloth or parchment.  A taller, slimmer variation of the dressoir was developed, called the argenterie, to lock up the family's valuable silver (argent) in the central case while providing horizontal display surfaces above and below.

Renaissance craftsmen developed the dressoir further, including overt architectural elements for the basic structure, such as arches and columns, along with increasing use of an enclosed space at the bottom rather than the open pot board.  But the pièce de la résistance of the Renaissance was the bahut-deux-corps - a massive undertaking of cabinet upon cabinet with the uppermost one often slightly narrower and crowned by a pediment.  A band containing one or two levels of drawers and forming the top portion of the lower bahut was common.  Although beautifully integrated, the bahut-deux-corps retained its identity as two cabinets coming apart for ease of transport.  Such pieces were often covered in hand-carved decoration incorporating such elements as lions' heads, caryatids, mythological creatures, heraldic motifs, musical instruments, vegetation and portraits of the owners.  Some even incorporated painted panels imitating Botticelli and other masters of the Italian Renaissance.   The enthusiasm for the New World and the age of exploration was reflected in a style incorporating heads with feather headdresses and exotic flora such as corn.  This is directly attributable to a sort of 16th century theme park created in Normandy by the ruling aristocracy and populated by 50 Indians from Brazil whose feather headdresses and elaborate earrings sparked a revolution in fashion and design reflected in the intricate carvings covering cabinets of the time.

Perhaps in reaction to this pervasive decoration, by the time of Louis XIII's reign in the 17th century, cabinets retained their architectural feel but ornamentation was geometric (diamond shapes) and placed a greater emphasis on the beauty and refinement of the wood itself.  Size still mattered and, as in the case of the armoire, cabinets took on huge proportions and a commanding presence.

In addition to the bahut-deux-corps, other forms of cabinets were widely used in the 19th century revival of interest in the Gothic and Renaissance styles.  For example, what we would today call a buffet or sideboard was a long, low cabinet or enfilade - taking its name from the Latin for "thread" and referring to the architectural device of stringing together a linear arrangement of interior doors.  Of a more rustic character is the confiturier or cabinet for storing fruit jams and preserves.  And for the sophisticated gentleman, there is the pantalonnière, a cabinet with doors behind which drawers emerge for laying out his array of trousers.

The19th century in France saw a wide-ranging revival of the styles of earlier times and the adaptation of cabinets to meet regional tastes and modern uses.  Our collection of cabinets represents some of the most beautiful and functional output of these craftsmen.

Click to view our Cabinets page.


Perhaps more than any other category of antique furniture, the chair has had an overriding social function in addition to allowing us to take a load off our feet.   Three-legged stools and benches without backs were used by those on the lowest rungs of society's ladder in early European times while the more fortunate had four-legged stools and benches with back rails for meals at long, communal tables.  In the Middle Ages and Renaissance, high-backed chairs were used by the lord of the manor as his seat of authority, often raised on platforms.  By Louis XIV's time, the styles of seating and their accoutrements were highly detailed and regulated - an effective means of imposing and enforcing rank on courtiers at Versailles.  Hangers-on were seated on large pillows while the nobility were permitted to sit on upholstered chairs with backs.

The earliest types of chairs include benches comprised of a chest with the addition of a back and arms.  Such benches were typically arrayed around the entry hall of a castle or against the walls of the main reception room.  Draped with fabric and covered in cushions, they were the ultimate in Medieval style and comfort.  A further tweaking of the bench design for a single occupant became the chayère or chaire with a high back and solid arms and its cousin the cathèdre or bishop's seat.  Tall chairs with high backs and sides had the advantage of protecting the sitter from  drafts and of concentrating heat from the fireplace, as depicted in the illustrations to Viollet-le-Duc's 19th century treatise entitled Le Mobilier Médiéval (Medieval Furniture).  Except when in use, the chairs were typically displayed with their backs up against a wall and hence the backs were unadorned.

Apart from benches, early French chairs were variations on a Roman theme.  For example, a style of chair whose history is as old as Europe itself is the "Savonarola" or "X" chair which evolved from the folding chair taken by the commanders of ancient Rome on their military campaigns.  Later, after a French invasion of Tuscany, it became associated with their Florentine ally, Savonarola.  The chairs named after the 15th century monk are still visible throughout his one-time home, the monastery of San Marco in Florence.  In the 19th century these chairs enjoyed a resurgence of popularity, lending an unmistakable Gothic or Renaissance aura to a room.

Another popular design in the Middle Ages was the caquetoire - a wooden armchair with a narrow back and a trapezoidal seat.  This shape is referred to 'as in the manner of Tallemouze' referring to a triangular puff pastry which was the ancestor of the modern cheesecake.

Especially in the dining room, the height of chair backs became important with the male head of household or the ancestry accorded the chair with the highest back.  The next highest would be reserved for his wife.  A particularly honored guest would be offered the host's chair placed at the head of the table.

By the time of Louis XIII's reign in the 17th century, chairs were lighter weight and more open with padded seats and low backs and an "H" shaped stretcher forming a stable base.  The long and prosperous reign of Louis XIV, however, saw greater variation along with elaborate carving and rich upholstery.  The backs of chairs became higher, curving gently at the top and the arms took on a curved shape as well.

During the 19th century revival of interest in Gothic and Renaissance styles, benches and caquetoires were particularly popular.  However, the need for the comfort afforded by dining chairs, as opposed to benches, led to the adoption of Gothic styling for dining room chairs.   Backs of chairs lent themselves to the overall form of a Gothic arch enclosing an upholstered panel or hand-carved fenestrage (tracery).

Click to view our Chairs page.


Tables were perhaps the earliest indicators that a nomadic existence was waning in Medieval Europe.  Large planks on saw-horses gave way to fabricated tables with central stretchers descended from the communal tables de monastère or refectory tables used in the dining halls of  monasteries.  Making possible shared meals and socializing cemented the importance of the table from the dawn of European history through to our own time.

Throughout the Middle Ages, the primary functions of the table were for eating and for displaying items.  It was not until the Renaissance that tables began to be designed for more specific functions such as gaming and writing.  As commerce played a more important role and cities grew, tables intended for a distinct commercial purpose, such as changing money or writing contracts, became more important and their design more elaborate.  Drawers were introduced in the band just below the top and the bureau-plat was born.  The term bureau comes from bure, a high-quality cloth draped over tables used by the keepers of the accounts at large estates and intended to distinguish it from the homespun, coarse woolen cloth used by less prestigious functionaries.  By the early 17th century the term bureau had come to mean not only the reinforced cloth but also the table to which it was attached.  From there, the person who sat at the table became the bureaucrat, giving rise to the institution known the world over, both collectively and pejoratively, as bureaucracy.

For residential uses, tables took on various forms.  Most popular in the Renaissance was the "library table," whose width was approximately half its length, supported by a trestle of connected arches over an "H" shaped stretcher.  Developed in Italy and known in France as the table à l'Italienne, it was inspired by tables made from marble in ancient Rome and called a cartibulum.  Designed for pride of place in a library, these tables were magnificently carved from the finest, old growth walnut.  Among the most beautiful were those of Jacques Androuet du Cerceau, whose engravings of tables and other furniture designs inspired generations of craftsmen.

The reign of Louis XIII saw the popularity of the writing table or bureau-plat with four legs in the form of torsades or twisted columns.  Some of these tables were so large that they could fill the role of a modern dining or kitchen table.  By the time of Louis XIV's long reign, tables were finding new forms such as ovals, circles and consoles, with more elaborate decoration.

During the 19th century, enthusiasm for furniture of the Middle Ages and Renaissance led designers to revive the styles of dining tables popular in the earlier periods but with additional emphasis on architectural features such as Gothic arches and tracery or Renaissance columns and arches.  The revival also placed great emphasis on the beauty of the wood comprising the table top.  Before the 19th century when the making of textiles was industrialized and prices dropped precipitously, the table had been less important and valuable than the cloth covering it and so there was little interest in what the top looked like.  Aspects of this continued into the 20th century when leaves or extensions to tables were unfinished and of lesser quality wood with the expectation that they would be covered by a cloth when in use.

Other forms of tables include the guéridon, a small yet heavily-carved circular or octagonal top mounted on a central pedestal.  Its cousin, the sellette, is taller and slimmer - designed to function as a pedestal or stand for objects such as plants, ceramics, silver, glass, or as a candelabrum for illumination.

It was not until the 20th century that such functional tables as the coffee table, end table or occasional table developed and so Gothic and Renaissance examples (or even their 19th century revivals) do not exist.  While we have seen 19th century copies of ancient tables "modified" by shortening their legs to become coffee tables, we cannot condone this barbaric practice.

Smaller tables are readily adaptable for uses in modern homes.  For example, the small table once known as a writing desk due to its central drawer for stowing stationery and ink, now serves better as a table between two beds or as a stand-alone table at bedside considering that mattresses are taller and therefore closer to the height of these tables.

Click to view our Tables page.


Antique fireplaces made of wood are difficult to find and expensive to acquire.  There are several reasons for this.  First of all, unlike other items of furniture such as cabinets, armoires, etc., fireplaces were commonly made of stone rather than wood.  Secondly, removing a fireplace from a building is tricky because they were designed and built in-place.  Frequently, the only way to remove them is to destroy them in the process.  As a result, we rarely see fireplaces come on the market and so we have fewer to offer than in other furniture categories.

Not only are wooden fireplaces rare, but those in the styles we favor are rarer still.  The underlying reason could be the lack of fireplaces from the Middle Ages and Renaissance to inspire 19th century designers.  During those earlier centuries, fireplaces would have been made exclusively from non-combustible materials such as stone.  But since 19th century enthusiasts of the Gothic and Renaissance styles wanted contemporary pieces evoking design elements of the earlier periods, some fireplaces were made during the revival of interest in things Medieval and Renaissance.

The fireplaces we have offered as part of the Château des Bois CollectionTM have been made of walnut and hand-carved in what the French describe as the Henri II style - combining elements of both Gothic and Renaissance vocabularies.  Characteristics include architectural features such as columns and arches as well as fanciful creatures such as lions and grotesques.

For modern buyers of 19th century fireplaces there is not only the problem of scarcity but size.  Custom-built wooden fireplaces were designed with one location in mind and can create challenges when needing to accommodate the fire-box of a modern edifice.  While we recommend that clients acquire the fireplace before the construction of a fire-box, this is not always possible.

With all these limitations in mind, we continue to search for fireplaces, especially those with armorial features and additional pieces above the mantle.  Such fireplaces create a commanding presence in a room while enhancing the warm and inviting atmosphere created by a roaring fire.

Click to view our Fireplaces.

Michael Markley’s Views on the Care and Feeding of Antique Furniture

The piece you purchase will have been cleaned and waxed using products from Dugay in Paris.  This is the traditional French method of caring for solid wood furniture and preserving the natural beauty of the wood.  It is the only method recommended to care for fine French furniture.  All that is required is occasional dusting and, every three to five years, a thorough waxing with Pate Dugay.

How to Dust

To dust, it is best to use specialty brushes (e.g., a horsehair shoe polishing brush) to access the intricate carving and to use a soft towel (the pile is the key) to gently clean flat surfaces.

Because gravity forces the dust downward, it is important to start at the top of your pieces and work your way down.  If possible, have your air conditioning system running so that the dust particles are directed to the filter and less likely to resettle on the furniture.

Curves or columns that are close to the body of the furniture may require inserting a cloth between the column and the body of the furniture, moving gently back and forth.


Furniture should require waxing only every three to five years, in conditions of normal usage.  The French waxing process uses waxes matched to the color of the wood (considering whatever stains and finishes were applied at the time of creation) and is designed to combat the natural lightening effects of ultra violet light and preserve the original depth and richness of the wood.

Our recommendation is to use only traditional French colored waxes such as Pate Dugay (the solvent for which is either mineral spirits or paint thinner).  Using  a soft cloth, apply the wax to flat, non-carved surfaces.  For details and carvings, use a natural fiber paint brush that is dipped into the wax and then painted evenly onto the details and carvings.  Wax should dry at least an hour, depending on the humidity, and then buff the furniture with soft toweling on the flat surfaces and highlights of the carved surfaces.  Use a special polishing brush for crevices and indentations of the carved and detailed surfaces.  Brush and/or buff until the dull appearance of the wax gives way to the gleaming reflectivity of a well-waxed surface.  The process is not unlike polishing shoes.


The waxing process inevitably results in wax deposits in the carvings and deep surfaces.  This accumulated wax (and dust!) gives the pieces what is known as their patina.  Having chosen the ideal wax color for the furniture, the result will be a long-term enhancement of the natural beauty of the wood and artistry of its creator.


Beware of products that talk about “feeding the wood.”  This is impossible since the wood has already been sealed behind lacquers or shellacs, in place since the piece was created, and so products such as orange oil or “miracle products” of any kind cannot penetrate and only evaporate from the surface.  However, they will cause dulling and they leave surface residues that gum up on the furniture and come off on anything that comes in contact with it.


Ader-Tajan, Collection Bruno Perrier Haute Epoque (Catalog for Sale at Auction on April 6, 1992 at the Hotel Drouot, Paris)

Ader-Tajan, Collection Bruno Perrier Haute Epoque Deuxième Vente (Catalog for Sale at Auction on December 7, 1993 at the Hotel George V, Paris)

Aguttes, Haute Epoque Mobilier et Statuaire (Catalog for Sale at Auction on October 17, 2011 at the Hôtel Drouot, Paris)

Aldrich, Megan, Gothic Revival (Phaidon Press, London, 1994)

Antiquités et Objets D'Art 10, Le Mobilier Italien (Editions Fabri, Paris, 1990)

Antonucci Becherer, Joseph, Pietro Perugino (Grand Rapids Art Museum, 1997)

Avril, François, L’Enluminure à L’Epoque Gothique (Bibliothèque de L’Image, Paris, 1995)

Blakeslee, Arthur L., Ornament of the Italian Renaissance (Dover, 2007)

Boccador, Jacqueline, Le Mobilier Français du Moyen Age à la Renaissance, (Editions d’Art Monelle Hayot, Saint-Just-en-Chaussée, 1988)

Boccador, Jacqueline, Temple du Temps, JMG (2002)

Borchert, Till-Holger, Flemish Primitives in Bruges, (Ludion, Ghent, 2006)

Boussel, Patrice, Les Styles du Moyen Age à Louis XIV  (Baschet et Cie, Paris, 1979)

Brooks, Chris, The Gothic Revival (Phaidon Press, London, 1999)

Burckhardt, Monica, Mobilier Moyen-Age, Renaissance (Editions Ch. Massin, Paris, Undated)

Carroll, Eugene A., Rosso Fiorentino, Drawings, Prints, and Decorative Arts, (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1987)

Cassar, Robert, Armour and the Lure of Classical Pattern, in Ornament and Malta (Heritage Malta, Valetta, 2011)

Charles, Corinne, Victor Hugo, Visions d'Intérieurs, du Meuble au Décor (Paris-Musées, Paris, 2003)

Chastel, André, The City in Perspective - Discovering Intarsia, FMR (May-June 1987 English Edition)

Costantino Fioratti, Helen, Il Mobile Italiano (Giunti Editore, Firenze-Milano, 2004)

Crépin-Leblond, Thierry, Le Roi et L'Artiste (Réunion des Musées Nationaux, Paris, 2013)

De Seta, Cesare, The City in Perspective - The Urban Image:  Real and Ideal, FMR (May-June 1987 English Edition)

Dulong, Claude, et al, Un Temps d’Exubérance, Les Arts Décoratifs sous Louis XIII et Anne d’Autriche, Paris, Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais (Réunion des Musées Nationaux, Paris, 2002)

Etude Tajan, Haute Epoque (Catalogue for Sale at Auction on September 24, 2003 at the Hôtel Drouot, Paris)

Faton-Boyancé, Jeanne (Ed.), Le Symbolisme du Bestiaire Médiéval Sculpté (Editions Faton, Dijon, 2010)

Faton-Boyancé, Jeanne (Ed.), Louvre Trésors du Moyen Age (Editions Faton, Dijon, 1993)

Faton-Boyancé, Jeanne (Ed.), Trésors de l’Art Médiéval – Le Musée de Cluny Devient Musée National du Moyen Age (Editions Faton, Dijon, 1992)

Faton-Boyancé, Jeanne, Trésors de la Renaissance au Château d’Ecouen (Editions Faton, Dijon, 1997)

Fiocco,Carola, et al, Majoliques Italiennes du Musée des Arts Décoratifs de Lyon (Editions Faton, Dijon, 2001)

Fligny, Laurence, Le Mobilier en Picardie 1200-1700  (Picard Editeur, Paris, 1990)

Fuccella, Antonia, Umbrian Furniture 15th to 18th Century (Editrice La Rocca, Marsciano, 2005)

Gairaud,Yves, Le Guidargus du Meuble Régional (Les Editions de l’Amateur, Paris, 1990)

Grenon, Thomas (Ed.), France 1500 Entre Moyen Age et Renaissance (Réunion des Musées Nationaux, Paris, 2010)

Jardine, Lisa, Worldly Goods -- A New History of the Renaissance (Doubleday, New York, 1996)

Havelock, Christine Mitchell, Hellenistic Art (W.W. Norton, New York, 2d ed., 1981)

Lightbown, R. W., Carlo Crivelli (Yale University Press, New Haven, 2004)

Mack, Rosamond E., From Bazaar to Piazza – Islamic Trade and Italian Art 1300-1600 (University of California, 2001)

Mannoni, Edith, Mobilier Lyonnais (Editions Massin, Paris, 1995)

Monnas, Lisa, Merchants, Princes and Painters -- Silk Fabrics in Italian and Northern Paintings 1300-1550, (Yale University Press, New Haven, 2008)

Musée National de la Renaissance, Hughes Sambin – Un Créateur au XVI Siècle (Réunion des Musées Nationaux, Paris, 2001)

Oliver, Lucile, Reconnaître les Styles Régionaux (Editions Massin, Paris, Undated)

O'Malley, Michelle, The Business of Art - Contracts and the Commissioniong Process in Renaissance Italy (Yale University Press, New Haven, 2005)

Picón, Carlos A., et al, The Art of the Classical World in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (Metropolitan Museum, New York, 2007)

Quette, Anne-Marie, Le Mobilier Français Louis XIII et Louis XIV (Editions Massin, Paris, 1996)

Pyhrr, Stuart W.,  Of Arms and Men - Arms and Armor at the Metropolitan, (Metropolitan Museum, New York, 2012)

Racinet, Auguste, Full-Color Picture Sourcebook of Historic Ornament (Dover Publications, New York, 1989).

Rousseau, Francis, Le Grand Livre des Meubles (Copyright Studio, Paris, 1999)

Rouyer, Eugène (Ed.), French Architectural Ornament from Versailles, Fontainebleau and Other Palaces (Dover Publications, New York, 2007)

Saglio, André, French Furniture (B.T. Batsford, 1913)

Salmon, Xavier, Fontainebleau - Le Temps des Italiens, (Editions Snoeck, Gand-Courtrai, 2013)

Sargentson, Carolyn, Merchants and Luxury Markets -- The Marchands Merciers of Eighteenth-Century Paris (Victoria & Albert Museum, London, 1996)

Scarpellini, Pietro and Silvestrelli, Maria Rita, Pintoricchio (Mederico Motta Editore, Milan, 2003)

Sebregondi, Ludovica, and Parks, Tim, Denaro e Bellezza - I Banchierei, Botticelli e il Rogo delle Vanità, Catalogue of Exhibition at the Palazzo Strozzi, Florence (Giunti, 2011)

Thirion, Jacques, Le Mobilier du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance en France (Editions Faton, Dijon, 1998)

Tissier de Mallerais, Martine, Cent Ans de Faïence à Blois (Château de Blois, 1978)

Vanlian, Laurent and Cédric Curien, Dream of the Dragon (Arts Asiatique, Paris, 2012)

Viollet-le-Duc, Eugène, Le Mobilier Médiéval (Georges Bernage, editor) (Editions Heimdal, Bayeux, 2003)

Wainwright, Clive, The Romantic Interior (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1989)

Ward-Jackson, Peter, Some Main Streams and Tributaries in European Ornament from 1500 to 1750 (Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 1969)

Wardropper, Ian, The Flowering of the French Renaissance (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 2004)

Wenzler, Claude, Architecture du Château Renaissance (Ouest-France, Rennes,1999)

Wilk, Christopher, Western Furniture 1350 to the Present Day (Cross River Press, New York, 1996)

Williamson, Pauland Motture, Peta (ed.), Medieval and Renaissance Treasures (V&A Publishing, London, 2010)

Wixom, William (Ed.), Mirror of the Medieval World (Metropolitan Museum, New York, 1999)

Zamperini, Alessandra, Ornament and the Grotesque (Thames & Hudson, London, 2008)

*This information may be freely copied and disseminated, providing attribution to M. Markley Antiques is included.


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